## 随机初始化模型参数

### Xavier随机初始化

U ( − 6 a + b , 6 a + b ) . U\left(-\sqrt{\frac{6}{a+b}}, \sqrt{\frac{6}{a+b}}\right).

cat cat dog dog

cat cat dog dog

# Kaggle 房价预测实战

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import sys
sys.path.append("/home/kesci/input")
import d2lzh1981 as d2l
torch.set_default_tensor_type(torch.FloatTensor)


## 获取和读取数据集

test_data = pd.read_csv("/home/kesci/input/houseprices2807/house-prices-advanced-regression-techniques/test.csv")


## 预处理数据

numeric_features = all_features.dtypes[all_features.dtypes != 'object'].index
all_features[numeric_features] = all_features[numeric_features].apply(
lambda x: (x - x.mean()) / (x.std()))
# 标准化后，每个数值特征的均值变为0，所以可以直接用0来替换缺失值
all_features[numeric_features] = all_features[numeric_features].fillna(0)


# dummy_na=True将缺失值也当作合法的特征值并为其创建指示特征
all_features = pd.get_dummies(all_features, dummy_na=True) #利用pandas实现one hot encode的方式
#最后，通过values属性得到NumPy格式的数据，并转成Tensor方便后面的训练。
n_train = train_data.shape[0]
train_features = torch.tensor(all_features[:n_train].values, dtype=torch.float)
test_features = torch.tensor(all_features[n_train:].values, dtype=torch.float)
train_labels = torch.tensor(train_data.SalePrice.values, dtype=torch.float).view(-1, 1)


## 训练模型

loss = torch.nn.MSELoss()

def get_net(feature_num):
net = nn.Linear(feature_num, 1)
for param in net.parameters():
nn.init.normal_(param, mean=0, std=0.01)   #normal_为正态分布
return net


1 n ∑ i = 1 n ( log ⁡ ( y i ) − log ⁡ ( y ^ i ) ) 2 . \sqrt{\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n\left(\log(y_i)-\log(\hat y_i)\right)^2}.

def log_rmse(net, features, labels):
# 将小于1的值设成1，使得取对数时数值更稳定
clipped_preds = torch.max(net(features), torch.tensor(1.0))
rmse = torch.sqrt(2 * loss(clipped_preds.log(), labels.log()).mean())
return rmse.item()


def train(net, train_features, train_labels, test_features, test_labels,
num_epochs, learning_rate, weight_decay, batch_size):
train_ls, test_ls = [], []
dataset = torch.utils.data.TensorDataset(train_features, train_labels)
net = net.float()
for epoch in range(num_epochs):
for X, y in train_iter:
l = loss(net(X.float()), y.float())
l.backward()
optimizer.step()
train_ls.append(log_rmse(net, train_features, train_labels))
if test_labels is not None:
test_ls.append(log_rmse(net, test_features, test_labels))
return train_ls, test_ls


## K折交叉验证

def get_k_fold_data(k, i, X, y):
# 返回第i折交叉验证时所需要的训练和验证数据
assert k > 1
fold_size = X.shape[0] // k
X_train, y_train = None, None
for j in range(k):
idx = slice(j * fold_size, (j + 1) * fold_size)
X_part, y_part = X[idx, :], y[idx]
if j == i:
X_valid, y_valid = X_part, y_part
elif X_train is None:
X_train, y_train = X_part, y_part
else:
X_train = torch.cat((X_train, X_part), dim=0)
y_train = torch.cat((y_train, y_part), dim=0)
return X_train, y_train, X_valid, y_valid

def k_fold(k, X_train, y_train, num_epochs,
learning_rate, weight_decay, batch_size):
train_l_sum, valid_l_sum = 0, 0
for i in range(k):
data = get_k_fold_data(k, i, X_train, y_train)
net = get_net(X_train.shape[1])
train_ls, valid_ls = train(net, *data, num_epochs, learning_rate,
weight_decay, batch_size)
train_l_sum += train_ls[-1]
valid_l_sum += valid_ls[-1]
if i == 0:
d2l.semilogy(range(1, num_epochs + 1), train_ls, 'epochs', 'rmse',
range(1, num_epochs + 1), valid_ls,
['train', 'valid'])
print('fold %d, train rmse %f, valid rmse %f' % (i, train_ls[-1], valid_ls[-1]))
return train_l_sum / k, valid_l_sum / k


## 模型选择

k, num_epochs, lr, weight_decay, batch_size = 5, 100, 5, 0, 64
train_l, valid_l = k_fold(k, train_features, train_labels, num_epochs, lr, weight_decay, batch_size)
print('%d-fold validation: avg train rmse %f, avg valid rmse %f' % (k, train_l, valid_l))


## 预测并在Kaggle中提交结果

def train_and_pred(train_features, test_features, train_labels, test_data,
num_epochs, lr, weight_decay, batch_size):
net = get_net(train_features.shape[1])
train_ls, _ = train(net, train_features, train_labels, None, None,
num_epochs, lr, weight_decay, batch_size)
d2l.semilogy(range(1, num_epochs + 1), train_ls, 'epochs', 'rmse')
print('train rmse %f' % train_ls[-1])
preds = net(test_features).detach().numpy()
test_data['SalePrice'] = pd.Series(preds.reshape(1, -1)[0])
submission = pd.concat([test_data['Id'], test_data['SalePrice']], axis=1)
submission.to_csv('./submission.csv', index=False)

train_and_pred(train_features, test_features, train_labels, test_data, num_epochs, lr, weight_decay, batch_size)